What are the different types of COVID-19 vaccines? || Mechanism of actions of different vaccines.




GENERAL MECHANISM


Each COVID-19 vaccine produces protection against the disease by causing the immune system to create antibodies to fight COVID-19. As a result of developing an immune response to the SARS-Cov-2 virus. 


COVID-19 vaccines make use of a spikelike structure on the surface of the COVID-19 virus called an S protein. The S protein helps the COVID-19 virus get inside your cells and start an infection. Developing immunity through vaccination means there is a reduced risk of developing the illness and its consequences. This immunity helps you fight the virus if exposed.





WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF COVID-19 VACCINES?


  1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine
  2. Vector vaccine
  3. Protein subunit vaccine 


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1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine


Messenger RNA vaccines use genetically engineered mRNA to give cells instructions to find the S protein on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. Our immune cells begin making the S protein pieces and displaying them on cell surfaces after vaccination. This causes the body to create antibodies. These antibodies will fight the COVID-19 virus, later if you become infected.


After delivering instructions, the mRNA is immediately broken down. It never enters the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA is kept. 


EXAMPLES -

1. Pfizer-BioNTech 

2. Moderna COVID-19 vaccines




2. Vector vaccine


In the Vector vaccine, the genetic material from the COVID-19 virus is placed in a modified version.

Vector vaccine. In this type of vaccine, genetic material from the COVID-19 virus is placed in a modified version of a different virus (viral vector). When the viral vector gets into your cells, it delivers genetic material from the COVID-19 virus that gives your cells instructions to make copies of the S protein. Once your cells display the S proteins on their surfaces, your immune system responds by creating antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.

Viral vector vaccines prevent one to get infected with the coronavirus or the viral vector virus. The genetic material delivered doesn’t become part of your DNA. 


EXAMPLES -

1. The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a vector vaccine. 

2. AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford also have a vector COVID-19 vaccine. 



3. Protein subunit vaccine


Protein subunit vaccines type of COVID-19 vaccines contains harmless S proteins. These vaccines include only the parts of a virus that best stimulate your immune system.

Once your immune system recognizes the S proteins, it creates antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.



EXAMPLES -

1. Novavax is working on a protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine.




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