Diabetes Mellitus || What causes diabetes mellitus? || Diabetes mellitus symptoms and preventions




WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?

According to the WHO (World Health Organization), diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.




WHAT IS THE TOTAL NO. OF DIABETICS GLOBALLY?

According to the WHO, about 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.6 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year. Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades.

A report in 2019 showed, over 30 million have now been diagnosed with diabetes in India. The estimate of the actual number of diabetics in India is around 40 million.

Which states that India actually has the highest number of diabetics of any one country in the entire world. 




HOW MANY TYPES OF DIABETES ARE THERE?

Mainly 4 types of diabetes are there :- 

      a) Type 1 diabetes

   b) Type 2 diabetes

   c) Gestesional diabetes

   d) Pre-diabetes   




TYPE 1 DIABETES

The main reason for type 1 diabetes is hereditary. It results from the body’s failure to produce insulin. It is also known as Juvenile Diabetes. It is estimated that 5-10% of Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Most treatment is administered with insulin pumps. Type 1 diabetes is considered a rare disorder.

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES?

         a. Heart disease (cardiovascular disease)

         b. Blindness (retinopathy)

         c. Nerve damage (neuropathy)

         d. Kidney damage (nephropathy)




TYPE 2 DIABETES

Results from insulin resistance i.e. a condition in which the body fails to use insulin properly, combined with relative insulin deficiency. Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is considered a common disorder.

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES?

    a. hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose) 

    b. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), which is very high blood glucose. 

Long-term complications of type 2 are 

  a. Diabetic retinopathy, 

       b. Kidney disease (nephropathy), 

        c. Diabetic neuropathy

        d. Macrovascular problems

     e. Heart disease (cardiovascular disease)

   f. Blindness (retinopathy)

  g. Nerve damage (neuropathy)GESTATIONAL DIABETES




Gestational diabetes affects about 4% of all pregnant women – about 135,000 cases in the United States each year.

Treatment for gestational diabetes aims to keep blood glucose levels normal i.e. equal to those of pregnant women who don’t have gestational diabetes.

PRE-DIABETES

Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. There are 41 million Americans who have pre-diabetes, in addition to the 20.8 million with diabetes 

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TYPE 1 DIABETES AND TYPE 2 DIABETES?

FEATURETYPE 1 DIABETESTYPE 2 DIABETES
OnsetSuddenGradual
Age at onsetMostly in childrenMostly in adults
Body sizeThin or normalOften obese
KetoacidosisCommonRare
AutoantibodiesUsually presentAbsent
Endogenous insulinLow or absentNormal, decreased, or increased
Concordance in identical twins50%90%
Prevalence~10%~90%




WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS?


        a.
Polyuria (Frequent urination)

        b. Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)

        c. Unexplained weight loss

        d. Extreme hunger

        e. Sudden vision changes

       f. Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet

       g. Feeling very tired much of the time

        h. Very dry skin

   i. Sores that are slow to heal

   j. More infections than usual

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR DIABETES?

    a. Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease. 

  b. Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise. 

    c. Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes.
 

HOW CAN DIABETES BE PREVENTED?

         a. Cut Sugar From Your Diet

         b. Work Out Regularly

         c. Lose Weight If You’re Overweight or Obese

         d. Avoid Sedentary Behaviors

         e. Eat a High-Fiber Diet