It is a condition where a person experience chest pain and discomfort. Occurs when a part of heart does not receive enough blood .
According to WHO Ischemic Heart Disease is the world’s biggest killer. In 2019 it causes 8 million deaths world wide.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ISCHEMIA?
Reversible Ischemia – The affected tissue will recover if blood flow is restored.
Irreversible Ischemia – Resulting in tissue death.
Acute Ischemia – Due to a sudden reduction in blood flow.
Chronic Ischemia – Due to slowly decreasing blood flow.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE?
Atherosclerosis (the most common cause of myocardial ischemia)
Blood clot, an embolus, or constriction of an artery
Trauma can also disrupt blood flow
HOW DOES IT AFFECT OUR BODY?
The plaques developed in atherosclerosis can rupture results into causing a blood clot. The clot might block an artery and lead to sudden, severe myocardial ischemia, resulting in a heart attack and stroke.
WHICH ORGANS GET AFFECTED BY ISCHEMIA?
Any organ can get affected by the Ischemia. A less known fact is intestines too can get affected by Ischemia, resulting in abdominal pain, bloody stool, and even intestinal rupture or gangrene.
Peripheral ischemia can lead to loss of fingers or toes or the need for limb amputation.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASES?
Chest pain or pressure, which may radiate to the back, arm, shoulder, neck, jaw or stomach.
Limitations of physical abilities.
Nausea with or without vomiting.
Palpitations or irregular heart rhythms.
Shortness of breath.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE?
Heart attack :- When a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, the lack of blood and oxygen can lead to a heart attack that destroys part of the heart muscle. The damage can be serious and sometimes fatal.
Irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia) :- An abnormal heart rhythm can weaken your heart and may be life-threatening.
Heart failure :- Over time, repeated episodes of ischemia may lead to heart failure.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASES?
Family history of coronary heart disease
High blood pressure, also known as hypertension
End-stage kidney disease
Amyloidosis (a condition in which abnormal proteins build up in the tissues and organs, including blood vessels takes place)
History of smoking tobacco
Alcohol or drug abuse
HOW TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ISCHEMIA?
Eating a healthy diet
Controlling your blood sugar
Reducing the stress level
Engaging in physical activity
Maintaining a healthy weight
Taking medications as recommended for heart disease, cholesterol, diabetes, or high blood pressure
Quitting smoking and other tobacco products
WHAT ARE THE TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS OF ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE?
Echocardiography or echocardiogram
Cardiac stress test or ergometry
Coronary computed tomography (coronary CT)
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS OF ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE?
Medications to control pain and dilate blood vessels
Medications to prevent ongoing clot formation
Surgery or procedures to remove clots
Surgery to bypass blocked blood vessels
Thrombolytic drugs to dissolve clots
Treatment during the acute phase while at hospital