Kidney disease || Types of Kidney diseases || Causes of Kidney diseases

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of your spine, below your ribs and behind your belly. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, roughly the size of a large fist. The kidneys’ job is to filter your blood.

Each kidney has around a million tiny filters called nephrons. You could have only 10% of your kidneys working, and you may not notice any symptoms or problems.

If blood stops flowing into a kidney, part or all of it could die. That can lead to kidney failure.

Malfunction of any of the kidneys due to any reason give rise to kidney disease.

According to the WHO, in 2019 kidney diseases caused 1.3 million deaths.


    a) Pyelonephritis 

    b) Kidney stones

    c) Nephrotic syndrome


    e) Polycystic kidney disease

   f) Acute renal failure

    g)Urinary tract infections

    h)Chronic renal failure

    i) End-stage renal disease 

    j) Papillary necrosis

   k)Diabetic nephropathy

    l) Hypertensive nephropathy

   m)Kidney cancer

    n)Interstitial nephritis

    o)Minimal change disease

   p)Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    q)Renal cyst


   A. Pyelonephritis (infection of kidney pelvis): When bacteria infect the kidney, it results into  back pain and fever. A spread of bacteria from an untreated bladder infection is the most common cause of pyelonephritis.

    B. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis): Minerals in urine form crystals (stones), which grow larger and  block the urine flow. It’s considered as one of the most painful conditions

    C. Nephrotic syndrome: The kidney spills large amounts of protein into the urine due to some damage caused. Leg swelling (edema) may be a symptom.

    D. Glomerulonephritis: It is a group of diseases that injure the part of the kidney that filters blood (called glomeruli). When the kidney is injured, it cannot get rid of wastes and extra fluid in the body. Blood and protein in the urine are common problems that occur with glomerulonephritis. It can also result in kidney failure.

   E. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic condition resulting in large cysts in both kidneys that hinder their work.

    F.  Acute renal failure (kidney failure): A sudden worsening in how well your kidneys work. Dehydration, a blockage in the urinary tract, or kidney damage can cause acute renal failure, which may be reversible.

    G. Urinary tract infections : A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.

    H. Chronic renal failure: A permanent partial loss of normal function of your kidneys. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes.

    I. End-stage renal disease (ESRD): Complete loss of kidney strength, usually due to progressive chronic kidney disease. People with ESRD require regular dialysis for survival.

    J. Papillary necrosis: Severe damage to the kidneys can cause chunks of kidney tissue to break off internally and clog the kidneys. If untreated, the resulting damage can lead to total kidney failure.

   K. Diabetic nephropathy: High blood sugar from diabetes progressively damages the kidneys, eventually causing chronic kidney disease. Protein in the urine (nephrotic syndrome) may also result.

  L. Hypertensive nephropathy: Kidney damage caused by high blood pressure. Chronic renal failure may eventually result.

   M. Kidney cancer: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer affecting the kidney. Smoking is the most common cause of kidney cancer.

    N. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the connective tissue inside the kidney, often causing acute renal failure. Allergic reactions and drug side effects are the usual causes.

   O. Minimal change disease: A form of nephrotic syndrome in which kidney cells look almost normal under the microscope. The disease can cause significant leg swelling (edema). Steroids are used to treat minimal change disease.

   P. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: The kidneys lose the ability to concentrate the urine, usually due to a drug reaction. Although it’s rarely dangerous, diabetes insipidus causes constant thirst and frequent urination.

    Q. Renal cyst: A hollowed-out space in the kidney. Isolated kidney cysts often happen as people age, and they almost never cause a problem. Complex cysts and masses can be cancerous.